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Makueni county has 64.3% households that use unimproved water sources, 35.7 % access improved water sources and only 17.7% have access to piped water. Athi River and Kibwezi River are the only permanent rivers serving the entire county. The majority of the populations depend on surface and subsurface dams for water, which often do not hold sufficient water due to high evaporation rates during the dry seasons.

The vast area of the county and the population is therefore inadequately supplied with water and the average distance from a water point is at 8kms. This has therefore led to severe water shortages for domestic, livestock, crop and industrial use. Being an ASAL region the County hardly receives sufficient rainfall. The groundwater resources are low and saline because of the basement rock systems. This has greatly affected agricultural and livestock production as most farmers are forced to depend on rain fed agricultural production. Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority is implementing the project in Makueni County at at Wanduli Earth Dam, Kibwezi West. The adaptation fund projects seeks to address the resilience to water shortages

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