Articles

7. Recycling of Waste and transfer stations

Introduction
The population in Nairobi City is estimated at 2,191,000 as of 1997 and the total amount of waste generated is estimated at 1,530 tons/day. The rate of solid waste generation is far greater than the capacity of the City authorities to collect and dispose it. These uncollected wastes are evidenced in garbage heaps, and litter everywhere. Plastics and other non biodegradable waste are strewn all over the low-income settlements causing great health and environmental concerns. There is a need to find a workable solution to improve the institutional and organizational arrangements for Solid Waste Management (SWM) at national and local level. Traditionally the emphasis by the Nairobi City Council has been on collection and disposal of waste rather than on an integrated solid waste management strategy with room for creating income and employment opportunities through other activities such as resource recovery new strategy that will allow you to sell your plastic waste, generate income for the youth and improve the Recyclable material such as paper, plastic, glass, makes up a significant percentage of the waste in Nairobi. The trend is that most of the recyclable waste is found in middle- and high income areas. The waste in low -income areas is largely composed of petrucible organic matter suitable only for compost production environment has been unveiled.
Recycling of plasticsRecycling as a strategy in Solid Waste Management SWM gained momentum only a few years ago due to the complexity involved in the integration of communities, business establishments and industries in the recycling system. By 1998, there were over 26 companies engaged in the waste recycling industry (e.g. Nairobi Plastics, Central Glass, Kamongo Waste Paper, Madhu Paper, Kenya Reclaim Rubber Co., Premier Rolling Mills, etc). These industries play a key role in resource recovery of solid waste by buying recovered material from the scavengers for re-processing at their factories. The materials that  are often recycled from solid waste include waste paper, cardboard, glass, metal, rubber .Given that there is a considerable demand, recycling and resource recovery offers good scope for employment generation, and potentially has both positive economic and environmental impacts. For instance, over 10 factories compete for waste plastic and currently the collected supply is inadequate for meeting the demand even though according to the JICA report, about 50 tons of wastes plastic are generated daily in Nairobi alone. This means that a lot of the plastic is uncollected, or in the case of polythene bags, it is difficult to recycle when contaminated with dirt.
Players in the plastic industry have come up with a concept that will see plastic waste collected and recycled before getting to the dumpsites. The concept involves organising youths in groups and empowering them to collect plastic waste from homes and selling them to big industries for recycling.
Traditionally, the emphasis by the municipal councils has been on collection and disposal of waste rather than on an integrated solid waste management strategy with room for creating income through recycling and recovery. The recycling of plastic waste is one approach that has positive ramification in creating informal employment among the youth and offering an environmentally sound solution to plastic waste management. The media is involved as a strategic partner and will focus on public awareness and education. The project begins with 50 housing estates on trial basis in Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa as the initial target region.
Most of the medical wastes can be recycled and remade into new items instead. Recycling keeps these items from being burned, reducing air pollution and saving natural resources at the same time. Hospitals can take other steps to reduce the amount of trash they produce. Reducing the amount of trash produced by hospitals will reduce the amount of trash that needs to be burned. Recycling and composting technologies are very informal and rudimentary.
Targeted Facilities
The recycling industries, NGOs and Community Based Organizations on plastic recycling projects, Recycling facilities such as East Africa Marine Environmental Co. in Mombasa has a capacity to recycle 13,000 tons and Optimum Lubricants in Kikuyu of 10,000 tons/year.


Impacts
Plastic waste is major sources of many environmental problems. They block gutters and drains, creating serious storm water problems. Livestock farmers know only too well that consumption of plastic by their animals could lead to death. Plastic bags are non-biodegradable and their presence in agricultural fields decreases soil productivity. Improper disposal of plastic bags have been linked to spread of malaria because they provide breeding habitats for mosquitoes and pathogens. When burned plastic bags release toxic gases such as furan and dioxin, and leave unhealthy residues that include lead and cadmium.
The United Nations Environment Programme (Unep) estimates that up to 50 million tonnes of electronic waste is generated worldwide annually. They die and kill. Think of simple things like dry cells, those batteries we use in torches and clocks. They leak into the soil and cattle eat the grass and we consume the animal products. They may need to break computers and separate hard plastics from the electronic boards. Some metals will certainly be useful locally but other parts will need to be shipped to foreign countries where there are special facilities to dispose of them safely. They must be supported financially and technically in their recycling efforts. Most likely the process may not be that complex. This leads to more and more electronic devices being discarded and therefore, what is supposed to be a good gesture to bridge the digital gap ends up building


Legal Interventions
Environment Management and Coordination Act, 1999
Part 12 (a) of the second schedule of Environment Management and Coordination Act (EMCA 1999) states that Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environmental Audits (EA) shall be carried out for waste disposal including work involving sites for solid waste disposal .
Further in Part V111 Section 87(1) states that no person shall discharge or dispose of any wastes whether generated within or outside Kenya, in such manner as to cause pollution to the environment or ill health to any person.
 
Section 89 states that any person who ,at the commencement of this Act ,owns or operates a waste disposal site or plant or generated hazardous waste , shall apply to the Authority for licence under this part ,within six months after the commencement of this Act.

Provision of Waste Management Regulations (2006)

Part 11 section 10(1-5), 11, 12 and 13 of Waste Management Regulations states that: 
10(1) Any person granted a licence under the Act and any other licence may be required by relevant local authority to operate a waste disposal site or plant, shall comply with all conditions imposed by the authority to ensure that such waste disposal site or plant operates in an environmentally sound manner.
10(2) An application for licence to operate a waste disposal site or plant shall be in Form V as set out in the first schedule of the regulation and shall be accompanied by the prescribed fees set out in the second schedule
10(3) A licence under the Act for the operation of waste disposal site or plant shall be in Form V as set out in the First schedule of these Regulations
 
10(4) a licence to operate a waste disposal site or plant shall be valid for a period of one year from the date of issue and may be renewed for a further period of one year on such terms and conditions as the authority may deem necessary or impose for purposes of ensuing public health and sound environmental management.
10(5) In issuing a waste disposal license, the Authority shall clearly indicate the disposal operation permitted and identified for the particular waste.
 
11Any operator of a disposal site or plant shall apply the relevant provisions on waste treatment under the local government act and regulations to ensure that such waste does not present any imminent and substantial danger to the public health, the environment and natural resources.
12 Every licensed owner or operator shall carry out an annual environmental audit pursuant to the provision of the act
13 Not withstanding any provision to the contrary in these Regulations, these Regulations shall also apply to plants and sites established for re-use or recycling of wastes
 
Standards
The following are the conditions required to licence a recycling facility.
General Conditions
1.1.     This license is valid for a period of 12 MONTHS from the date hereof
1.2.    The operator is licensed to only carry out recycling of waste specified in this license
1.3.    This license covers activities on the site plan submitted for L.R No… covering… ……. Ha with boundaries marked on the site plan
1.4.    Without prejudice to the other conditions of this license, the owner/operator shall implement and maintain an environmental management system, organizational structure and allocate resources that are sufficient to achieve compliance with the requirements and conditions of this license.
1.5.    The owner/operator shall submit an Annual Environmental Audit together with the application for renewal of license.
1.6.     The owner/operator shall keep records including, this recycling license Environmental Impact Assessment license, Environmental Audit report, emission monitoring reports, and shall make them available to the Environmental inspectors.
1.7.    The owner/operator shall ensure that competent personnel operate the facility.
1.8.    The owner/operator shall ensure that staff is provided with appropriate personnel protective equipment (PPE).
1.9.    The owner/operator shall give access to Environmental inspectors from the Authority without prior notice upon identification and provide information, reports, records and data for inspection.
1.10.    The owner/operator shall provide the staff with full disclosure of the wastes characteristics under recycling
1.11.    The Authority shall reserve the right to withdraw, cancel or vary this license in the event of breach of any of the conditions stated herein or any contravention to the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999 and the Regulations there under.
1.12.    The owner/operator shall put appropriate signage and labeling, of a height at least 30 centimetres, on the facility.
1.13.    This license shall not be taken as statutory defense against charges of pollution in respect of any manner of pollution not specified herein.

1.    Operational Conditions
2.1    The owner/operator shall ensure that the recycling facility is designed and operated in a manner to prevent the occurrence of odour or health hazard
2.2    The owner/operator shall ensure that all waste to be recycled is confined within the licensed site
2.3    The owner/operator shall provide adequate storage space for the incoming waste, the recycling phase and temporary storage space for the finished/final product.
2.4    The owner/operator shall provide adequate and effective control measures for fire, incidents and nuisances.
2.5    The owner/operator shall ensure that the approved Environmental Management plan (EMP) under the Environmental Impact Assessment / Environmental Audit report is adhered to throughout the operational cycle.
2.6    The owner/operator shall comply with NEMA improvement orders throughout the operational period
2.7    The owner/operator shall ensure that all visitors to the site are provided with the requisite personnel protective equipment (PPE).
2.8    The recycling plant must be situated in appropriate location as per the zoning specification of the local authority.
2.9    The owner/operator shall ensure that sludge/slug is disposed off according the Environmental Management and Coordination (Waste Management) Regulations, 2006.

2.    Monitoring Conditions
2.1.    The owner/operator shall comply with the monitoring requirements of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999 and the Regulations there under

3.    Notifications
3.1.    The owner/operator shall seek written approval from the Authority for any operational changes.
3.2.    The owner/operator shall notify the Authority of intention to decommission and submit a Decommissioning Plan, 3 months prior to the decommissioning date.
3.3.    The owner/operator shall inform the Authority of any incident through the hotline No. 606041 and written notice to the Authority within 24 hours

4.    Decommissioning Conditions
4.1.    The owner/operator shall decommission the recycling facility according to the approved Decommissioning plan


Licensing Procedures
•    Obtain application forms can be obtained from District Environment Officer (DEO) OR download  from the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) Website: www.nema.go.ke
•    Fill application forms in triplicate  indicating EIA or EA reference Number and attach the necessary documents; land registration number ,site location maps, sketch of facility/site indicating three sampling points, design plans of the treatment works, effluent analyses from NEMA accredited laboratories, company PIN Certificate, Certificate of incorporation, evidence of payment of prescribed application fee.
•    Pay prescribed application fee through NEMA’s Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB) Revenue Account (233971386) or Cash payment of Kshs 3, 000 at NEMA headquarters. NEMA official receipt will be issued on evidence of payment such as bank deposit slips or copy of bankers cheque
•    Return the duly filled application forms and documents to the District Environmental Officer who will then forward them to the NEMA Headquarters, waste management section for reviewing.
•    The application will then reviewed within 21 working days. An approval for licensing will be given with relevant conditions or a decline stating the reasons.
•    Upon fulfillment of application requirements and payment of license fees, a license will be issued within 30 working days
•    The license is renewed annually upon adherence to all conditions provided.

N/B: Processing of the license will proceed upon submission of necessary documents.

Charges
Application Fee:
To Own/operate a waste processing plant/site for Recycling
 KShs 3, 000
Licensing fee:
To Own/operate a waste processing plant/site for Recycling - KShs.40, 000


Environmental Monitoring and Compliance
NEMA’s Environmental Inspectors will undertake regular monitoring of the facilities to ensure compliance with the Regulations. In the event of violation of conditions in the license not withstanding the official renewal dates. Such facilities shall cease to operate until the licensing conditions are fulfilled.

Offences and Penalties
Any person who contravenes any provision of this section shall be guilty of an offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not more than two years or a fine of not more than one million shillings or to both such imprisonment and fine. 

GUIDANCE NOTES FOR RECYCLING
1.    Attach application fee receipt/bank slip
2.    Provide certificate of registration
3.    Give the PIN number and attach the PIN certificate
4.    Provide location of recycler; district, L.R number and street
5.    Submit approval of town/country planning authority
6.    Indicate the type of waste to be disposed of at plant/site; Hazardous, domestic, industrial and biomedical.
7.    Indicate the quantity of waste being disposed off/per annum (tonnes/kg)
8.    Estimate the life span of plant/site
9.    Indicate the proposed hectarage/area of plant/site
10.    Submit the executive summary of the environmental impact assessment (EIA)
11.    Attach a copy of EIA licence/copy of NEMA EA acknowledgement letter
12.    Provide name, designation and signature of contact person
13.    The application form to have company stamp
14.    Show evidence of proposed controls of handling emissions
15.    Submit proposed methods of nuisance control
16.    Submit detailed measures to control fire
17.    Submit accident and emergency procedure and include training, first aid and signage
18.    Provide list of equipment to be used on site showing their maintenance programme
19.    Submit environmental maintenance plan
20.    Submit proof of technical competence of the operator
21.    Provide detail of any environmental management system in place
22.    Provide health and safety procedures and equipment
23.    Submit operating budget foe recycler, budget line and business plan.
24.    Indicate the operating temperature range
25.    Provide methods to be used to dispose off ash
26.    Provide certificate of good conduct from CID or a declaration letter

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